- 时间：2018-03-14 15:42:29
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper 2 ,firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.
they were 8 .But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities
9 why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was 11 to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally 12 even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the
authors 13 to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less 14
managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was 15 stronger in places
where happiness was spread more 16 . Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively
happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
17 this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the
authors believe it at least 18 at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment
would help 19 how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be
more forward-thinking and creative and 20 R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share
20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
1．答案 [C] how
解析 原文 new research suggest that happiness might influence firms work, too 意思是新的研究表明快乐影响公司的工作 , [A] 原因[B]地点 [D]时间，根据语法四项均可入选，但是根据第二段的内容 invest 和 spend 可知是怎么做所以正确答案为 C 方式。
2．答案 [B ] In particular
解析 2 的前一句 Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research
paper 根据最新研究员工快乐的公司投资偏多。后一句 firms in happy places spend more on R&D ( research and development ).在令人欢乐的地方建立的公司在研究和发展上投资更多。上下两句构成同向的递进的关系，选项 B 是特别的尤其的意思，符合上下文的逻辑关系。[A] In return 作为回报 [C] In contrast 反之[D] In conclusion 总之，与其语意不达，不能入选。
3．答案 [D] necessary
解析 原句 That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for
the future.中，longer-term thinking 是中心词，后面的部分是其定语，为未来投资所 的长远的思维方式。[A] sufficient 充分的[B] famous 著名的[C] perfect 完美的 [D] necessary 必须的 所以应选择[D] necessary 必须的均不能入选
4．答案 [C] optimism
考点 并列连词 and 前后的逻辑关系
解析 根据原句 The researchers wanted to know if the 4 and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would5the way companies invested. 4 后，inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness 和快乐相随相伴的冒险精神，可以推测 and 前应选择 happiness 快乐的同义词，所以应选择[C] optimism 乐观主义。[A] individualism 个人主义 [B] modernism 现代主义[D] realism 现实主义 意思均与原文无关。
解析 原文 The researchers wanted to know if the 4 and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would5the way companies invested. if 从句中 主语是 the 4 and inclination 乐观和冒险精神，谓语是 would ，宾语是 the way，据语义快乐和冒险精神改变公司的投资方式，所以选择[D]选项[A] echo 回声[B] miss 思念[C] spoil 溺爱均不能入选。
6． 答案 [B] measured
解析 原句 So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas. ，分解原句得到中心词’ average happiness 一般的快乐情况，修饰词是 6 by Gallup polling，盖洛普民意调查 的。根据语义应选择[B] measured 测量估量， [A] imagined 想象 [C] invented 发明 [D] assumed 保证担保使确信 意思不匹配，均不能入选。
7． 答案 [A] Sure
解析 上一段观点指出快乐改变公司的投资方式，本段 7enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area ，意思是公司的投资与快乐密切相关，上下段语义一致，所以选择[A] Sure ，sure enough 是果然果真的意思 [B] Odd 奇怪 [C] Unfortunate 不幸地[D] Often经常均不能入选。
8．答案 [D] headquartered
解析 原句 7enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 ，分解定语从句得到主语是 they ，谓语是 were ，状语是 in the area 。根据语义公司坐落于某个区域，所以选 D。[A] advertised 做[B] divided 分隔 [C] overtaxed 课税过重 [D] headquartered 设立总部均不能入选
9．答案 [A] explain
解析 原句.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D? ，分解原句得到主语是 something else 一些其他事情 ，谓语是 ，宾语是 why firms there spend more on R&D 为什么公司在投资上花费巨大。根据语义，所以选 [A] explain 解释。 . [B] overstate 夸大 [C] summarize 总结 [D] emphasize 强调 均不能入选。
10．答案 [B] factors
解析 原文 To find out, the researchers controlled for various10that might make firms more likely to invest -like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was11to live in, like growth in wages or population. ，根据原文得到公司可能投资的 ，-------即大小，行业和业绩，可以得到答案为[B] factors 因素 。. [A] stages 阶段[C] levels 层次 [D] methods 方法均不能入选。
11．答案 [A] desirable
解析 原句 To find out, the researchers controlled for various10that might make firms more likely to invest -like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was11to live in, like growth in wages or population. ，分解原句得到主语是 ，谓语是 ，宾语是 。根据语义如工资的增长或人口的增长，这些令人怎么样的居住地方，所以选[A] desirable 令人满意的[B] sociable 社交的友善的 [C] reputable 声誉好的 [D] reliable 可靠的均不能入选
解析 原句 The link between happiness and investment generally 12 even after accounting for these things.，分
解原句得到谓语 宾语是 the link 并联。联系全文 根据语义，考虑到这些因素，人们 快乐和投资的关系，所以选[B] held 支持保留。[A] resumed 重新考虑[C]emerged 出现[D] broke 打破均不能入选
13．答案 [A] attribute
解析 原句前半句 The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors13to “less codified decision making process” 意思是：在一些新成立的公司，快乐和投资的关系尤为明显，这 简单的决议过程 ，所以上下句构成原因与结果的关系，所以选[A] attribute to 归因于。[B] assign 分配 [C] transfer 转移转让 [D]compare 比喻均不能入选
解析 原句中心词是 and the possible presence of “younger and less14managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment. ，本句提到 younger firms，而此处有 less，所以没有经验的经理与新成立的公司语义呼应，所以选[D]experienced 有经的。
15．答案 [C] also
解析 原文为 ” The relationship was15stronger in places where happiness was spread more16.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
上句的意思是在快乐传播更广泛的地方这种关联性 更强大。下句的意思是公司更愿意在大多数人都快乐的地方投资，[C] also 也，前后句构成并列关系。[A] thus 因此 [B] instead 取而代之 [D] never 从来不均不能入选
16．答案 [D] equally
解析 文为 The relationship was15stronger in places where happiness was spread more16.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
上句的意思是在快乐传播更广泛的地方这种关联性 更强大。下句的意思是公司更愿意在大多数人都快乐的地方投资，而不愿意在个别人快乐的公司投资。所以选择[D] equally 同样的同等的[A] rapidly 迅速的 [B] regularly 规律的 [C] directly 直接的均不能入选。
17．答案 [C] While
解析 上段的意思快乐与投资成正相关，本句 17 this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view 的意思是这不能证明快乐可以促使公司投资更多，语义上构成对比关系，所以选择[C] While 然而。[A] After 在…之后 [B] Until 直到[D] Since 自从均不能入选。
18．答案 [C] hints
解析, the authors believe it at least18at that possibility. 作者认为这至少 了这种可能性，主语是 it ，谓语是 ，宾语是这种可能性。所以选[C] hint at 暗指；。[A] arrives at 达成 [B] jumps 欣然接受；跃向 [D] strikes strike at 袭击；攻击；向…打击均不能入选。
19．答案 [A] shape
解析 原句是 It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help19how executives think about the future.主语是当地的文化和情感，谓语是帮助 ，宾语是管理层如何考虑未来的发展。所以选[A] shape 形成塑造。[B] rediscover 重新发现 [C] simplify 简化 [D] share 分享均不能入选。
20．答案 [B] lean towards
解析 原句“It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and20R&D more than the average,” said one researcher. ，并列处是快乐的人更加有远见和，快乐的人比一般人更投资构成并列关系。所以选[B] lean towards 趋向于。[A] pray for 恳求，请求[B] lean towards 趋向 倾向（偏向） [C] give away 放弃；泄露；分发；出卖 [D] send out 发送；派遣；放出均不能入选。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers – but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn – how to think logically through a problem and organize the results – apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes –for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want –the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that –the better.
21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22. In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________
23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will________
A . help students learn other computer languages
B .have to be upgraded when new technologiescome
C .need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to______
A. bring forth innovative computer technologies
B.stay longer in the information technology industry
C.become better prepared for the digitalized world
D.compete with a future army of programmers
25.The word “coax”(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened .“The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ,”said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the” threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10
years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough. “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, ” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____. [A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists [D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____. [A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power [D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29. According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.
[A] industry groups
[B] [B]the win-win rhetoric [C]environmental groups
[D]the plan under challenge
That everyone's too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.
What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read: “Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times.” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption.” Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them.” No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behavior helps us “step outside time's flow” into “soul time.” You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you're “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.
31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because .
[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to .
[A] update their to-do lists
[B] make passing time fulfilling
[C] carry their plans through
[D] pursue carefree reading
33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps .
[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set
[B] develop online reading habits
[C] promote ritualistic reading
[D] achieve immersive reading
34. “Carry a book with you at all times”can work if .
[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with [C] you are able to drop back to business after reading [D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
35. The best title for this text could be .
[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading
[B] How to Find Time to Read
[C] How to Set Reading Goals
Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.
Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.
Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.
From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.
Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. While younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those “just getting started in life” face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.
Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-year-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said.” I can’t afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen.” Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young.“I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn’t have college degrees,”Schneider said.“I don’t think people are capable of that anymore. ” 36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is .
[A] trying out different lifestyles
[B] having a family with children
[C] working beyond retirement age
[D] setting up a profitable business
37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to .
[A]favor a slower life pace
[B] hold an occupation longer
[C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
[D] give priority to childcare outside the home
38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will .
[A] become increasingly clear
[B] focus on materialistic issues
[C] depend largely on political preferences
[D] reach almost all aspects of American life
39. Both young and old agree that .
[A] good-paying jobs are less available
[B] the old made more life achievements
[C] housing loans today are easy to obtain
[D] getting established is harder for the young
40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?
[A] He found a dream job after graduating from college
[B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success
[C]His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree
[D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging
阅读理解 A 节参考答案
21. [答案][B]remodel the way of thinking
本题属于人物观点题，根据题干 Cortina holds 回文定位在第二段。 “However, Cortina said, early
exposure is beneficial. ”其后进一步解释“It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. ”选项 B 是对原文“transform their thought”的同义置换。
22. [答案][B] interest
本题属于事实细节题，根据题干 Flatiron 定位到第四段“The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but ‘we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,’ said Victoria Friedman”即虽然高中拿到同样的总课表，但会根据其兴趣作调整，因此选项 B 为正选。
23. [答案][A] help students learn other computer languages
本题属于事实细节题，根据题干 Deborah Seehorn 定位到文章第五段转折词 But 后“ the skills they learn– how to think logically through a problem and organize the results – apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn,”选项 A 帮助学生学习另外的电脑语言是对这句话的概括。
24. [答案][C] become better prepared for the digitalized world
本题属于事实细节题, 根据题干关键词 Key word“the last paragraph”和“Flatiron students”定位在最后一段”These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes–for the rest of their lives”选项 C“为数字化世界做更好的准备”是对原文“被电脑环绕”（生活在电脑时代）的同义替换。
25. [答案][A] persuade
本题属于词义题, 此类题需结合具体的语境及所在段落的主旨进行解答。本段主要讲虽然所有学生不一定都成为计算机方面的专业人士，但都会有所学，有所得，且“how computers think”和“how to coax the machine into producing what they want ”是并列关系，都为所学内容，为褒义色彩，因此选项 B 和 C 排除，再将选项 D 带入，语义不通顺，故排除。因此，本题正确答案为[A] 。
26. [答案][A] its drastically decreased population
本题属于细节分析题，由第二段首句“The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened”中的”major reason”可知答案应在第一段结尾部分： “just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the specis ‘historic range’just 一词看出该鸟类数量不如以前，即鸟类数量急剧减少。
of the species 'historic range.”just 一词看出该鸟类数量今不如昔，即鸟类数量急剧减少— “drastically decreased”。
27. [答案][C] granted less federal regulatory power
本题属于推理判断题，由第二段可知，环保主义者 environmentalists 原本希望 “gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats”即联邦政府能够有更多的约束管理权，并由此感到失望。而 but 之后，即政府官员“Ashe and others ”表示 “the”threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches”,句中的 new 一词即看出会有更多的管理方法，即不同意 environmentalists 政府会“granted less federal regulatory power”,由此可知答案选 C。
28. [答案][A] agree to pay a sum for compensation
“the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fun d to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat”,破坏栖息地的人只要支付一定赔偿即可免于起诉。“pay into a fund”对应正确答案的“pay a sum for compensation”
29. [答案][D] the states
知, “Overall, the idea is to let "states" remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species," Ashe said.”句中“let "states" remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species”表示对于保护鸟类的过程中，state处于“the driver 's seat”的位置，即操控全局，对应题干中的“the leading role”
30. [答案][C] environmental groups
本题属于推理判断题，由最后一段可 知, “Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric.”这其中包括“environmental groups”Jay Lininger 的身份是 biologist，且他表示 “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,”由此看出 biologist 也不支持 win-win 的做法，因此可知作为 biologist 的他最有可能支持 environmental groups。“industry groups”不支持 win-win 的做法出发点很可能与自身利益有关，和 Lininger 的立场不同，故不能选 A。
31. [答案][D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
本题属于细节题，根据题干可回文定位到第二段第一句，其后是作者自身一些感受及作者引用 Tim Parks 的言论，结论性信息源出现在本段结尾”Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.”即深度阅读所需要的条件不能够得到保
32. [答案][B] make passing time fulfilling
本题属于例证题，根据题干 Key word “empty bottles”可定位于到第三段第五句“The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,”，这一暗喻将未来比作传送带上无休止，无穷尽的空瓶子，接着“we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them.”解释道如果我们不能填满它们就会将他们浪费掉，所以 B 选项为正选。
33. [答案][D] achieve immrsive reading
本题属于原因细节题，根据题干 Key word ”Eberle“和”scheduling regular times“定位到第四段第二句，”such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time's flow” into “soul time“，“scheduling regular times for reading helps”是题干中的“such ritualistic behavior helps”的同义改写， “soul time”是“immersive reading”的同义替换。故正确答案为选项 D。
34. [答案][A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
本题属于原因细节题，根据题干可以定位到第四段倒数第二句 ”Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state “即假定你经常沉浸在阅读中，以至于阅读成为一种默认设置。因此可以确定选项 A 为正确答案。
35. [答案][B] How to Find Time to Read
本题属于主旨题，文章主旨常出现于第一段段尾转折处，But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.即没有时间阅读，其后第二、三、四段都在论证深度阅读才是解决之道，选项 D 很好地进行了归纳概括。
36. [答案][B] having a family with children
“Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties.”可知答案为 B。 A，D 均为提及，C
37. [答案][C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
“...agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children”可知答案为
38. [答案][D] reach almost all aspects of American life
“those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through v irtually all aspects of American life”可知答案为 D，“spread through virtually all aspects of American life”与正确选项句意基本一致。
39. [答案][D] getting established is harder for the young
本题属于细节分析题，由第五段 “big majorities in both groups believe those "just getting started in life" face a tougher a good-paying job, st arting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing”可知答案为 D，这里“good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing”从各个方面讲述今天年轻人起步的艰难，A，B，C 选项或只提及一方面，或与原文表述不符。
40. [答案][C] His parents' good life has little to do with a college degree
本题属于细节分析题，由最后一段 “he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young”可知答案为 D，父母均未读完大学但同时期要比 Schneider 生活的幸福，由此推断优越生活与受教育程度的关系。C 选项中词组“...has little to do with…”即表示“…与...没有关联”，故 C 正确。
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A] Be silly
[B] Have fun
[C] Express your emotions
D] Don't overthink it
[E] Be easily pleased
[F] Notice things [G] Ask for help
As adults, it seems that we are constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their wellbeing instinctively, and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.
What does a child do when he's sad? He cries. When he's angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviors, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That’s about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately, and then-again, like children-move.
A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was nine years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't stop talking about it. Too often we believe that a new job, bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have very little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.
Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and even have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which, of course, have a positive effect on happiness levels.
The problem with being a grown up is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)--it doesn't matter, so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.
Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can backfire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said:"Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness."And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live.
阅读理解 B 节参考答案
41. [答案][C]Express your emotions.
本段大意是儿童表达情感比较直接，与之相比，成人则比较含蓄，倾向于控制和压抑自身的情感。文中“ control our emotions”，“suppressing emotions”，“express what we feel appropriately”都是很好的体现。
42. [答案][E]Be easily pleased.
本段大意是通常我们认为新工作、大房子，好车这样的事物更会让我们感到满足，然而事实并非如此，相反小事情确实提高幸福感的更好方法。题目“Be easily pleased”很好地进行了归纳总结。
43. [答案][A]Be silly.
本段大意是如果我们能够参与到一些傻事中，笑一笑，将会减轻压力，增加我们身体中的好的荷尔蒙。文中“a bit of silliness”“have a positive effect on happiness levels”都是题目“Be silly”的很好体现。
44. [答案][B]Have fun.
本段大意是伴随成长需要面对更多地事情，但成年人同样有诸如记日记的权利，并且享受我们所爱很重要。文中“ enjoy the things we love”，“so long as they're enjoyable”都指向答案“Have fun”。
45. [答案][D]Don't overthink it.
本段大意是对于快乐这件事情，我们应该顺其自然，把它当做我们生活方式的副产品，而不是为了快乐而快乐。题目“Don't overthink it”强调追求快乐地力度，不要过度考虑，太把它当回事，比较合适。
Section III Translation
In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese, write your translation on ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple:The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,00 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead begin shopping emotionally - which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.
超市设计的目的就是为了吸引顾客花尽可能多的时间在卖场选购。理由很简单：在店里待的时间越长，看到的东西就越多；看到的越多，购买的就越多。超市商品琳琅满目。根据美国食品协会的调查，一般的超市约有 44000 种不同的商品，有的超市甚至高达成千上万种。如此种类繁多的商品足以让顾客眼花缭乱。根据脑部扫描实验，对我们来说，在众多选择中迅速做出决定实在太难。购物 40 分钟后，大多数人不再纠结地理性选择，，而开始冲动消费。这就可以解释为什么购物车里会有一半的商品是我们本不打算购买的。
Section IV Writing
Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to
1) thank him, and
2) give advice.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your name or the name of your university,
Do not write your address.(10 points)
I would like to convey my heartfelt thanks to you for your kindness to congratulate me when I have won the translation test.
As a Math major, I guess you may have some doubts and worries. I have experienced the same with you, so I think I may be in a position to give you some advice. First, you need to realize that having a better understanding of the culture difference between the two languages is the first step. In addition, I think it is necessary to remind you that practice makes perfect, so practice every day is of vital importance.
I wish you can pass the test next time and please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any problem.
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1)interpret the chart, and
2)give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
What is shown in the pie chart above indicates that constituent differences took place in travelling purpose of undergraduates in a university. The chart fell into five parts. Those for enjoying the scenery took up 37%; those
for relieving pressure shared 33% and other30% were distributed to whoever want to make friends, develop independence and so on. In conclusion, the first two parts, totally 70%, occupied the most.
Read between the lines, the reasons for the differences in the traveling purpose can be accounted as follows: Firstly, the living pressure is the contributing force to the phenomenon. It is universally well-known that with increasing pressure in university, there is a growing number of students travelling to cope with stress, so it is a popular tread nowadays. Secondly, it is closely related with the development of social ideology, lots of studies have found that in order to broaden horizon, many students take a tour to enjoy the scenery.
As far as I am concerned, it is beneficial to have a journey. The university should give full support to the phenomenon. I also believe it will keep the trend.